Participatory budgeting is a democratic process in which residents directly decide how to spend part of a public budget. Each year, residents brainstorm ideas, turn them into proposals, and vote to decide which proposals to fund. Started in Brazil in 1989, participatory budgeting has been used for over 7,000 public budgets globally, for cities, states, nations, schools, universities, and other institutions.
Through participatory policymaking, residents propose, debate, and vote on new policies and policy changes, through online platforms and meetings. Participatory policymaking has been used in places such as Taiwan and Spain to introduce and adopt new government policies for issues such as transportation, environment, technology, and public health.
In citizens’ assemblies, juries and panels, the government, a civil society organization or another institution convenes a randomly selected and representative sample of the community to learn about a policy issue and identify policy solutions. The jury or assembly meets for weeks or months, learns from experts, and then produces a decision, statement or recommendation. These recommendations are often then put to a legislative vote or public vote via referendum, and they have been used to address policies such as abortion, climate change and housing.
In legislative theater, communities, advocates and policymakers work together in a creative process to identify, develop, and build support for new legislation Through interactive theater shows, community members act out solutions to situations of oppression, then work with officials to transform these solutions into new laws or changes to existing laws. Originating in Brazil in 1992, legislative theater has been used around the world to develop creative solutions for issues such as homelessness, the justice system, and workers’ rights.